How To Use The Book

General

The book before you is the twenty-fourth edition of Gordons Print Price Annual, the worlds leading guide to fine print prices at auction. We have recorded old master, modern, and contemporary fine prints; decorative, historical, sporting, topographical, natural history, and botanical prints; Japanese prints; posters (fine art, vintage, and film); livres dartiste, illustrated books, and books with original graphics; and Picasso ceramics. These were sold in the world's major, and many of the minor, auction houses during the calendar year 2000.

Our entries, which this year top 52,000, are one-time entries from a 12-month period (January 1 to December 31, 2000). Other indices repeat listings to "bulk-up" their books or report the auction or calendar year as having 15 months. Gordons has the most print-related entries of any art reference price guide by a wide margin.

Accuracy in reporting, important as it is, is not the sole criterion of usefulness. We spend untold hours consolidating titles and references and correcting and translating titles, as well as looking up catalogue references and filling in concordances. Proofing the book involves scanning more than a half million lines on our computer monitors.

Despite our best efforts (and those of the auction houses), a certain number of mistakes creep in every year. Some are undoubtedly of our own making. But others are beyond our control, rely as we must on the accuracy of the auction houses information and the limited time we have to check it. Typing errors and similar problems are for this time only and thus past praying for. But there may be others which we would be likely to repeat next year out of sheer ignorance, and those we would certainly appreciate having pointed out to us. So regarding errors we ask: 1- your forgiveness; 2- your reporting them to us so that we may correct them on our companion CD-ROM disc and on-line Datastore; and 3- your realization that the auction house may share or own the blame for that particular incorrect entry or mistake.

The "Alphabetical Listing by Artist of Prints Sold at Auction - 2000" constitutes, of course, the heart of the book. The individual entries for each print or group of prints contain information extracted from the auction sale catalogue in which the print appeared. Some minor auction houses' sales have been omitted because of their poor cataloguing of lots. The old computer adage of "garbage in...garbage out" has led us to this decision. Useful information is what we have endeavored to include in this book. When possible or necessary, as noted above, information has been amended or corrected; references and titles have especially received this attention.

Complete sets, pair portfolios, and cohesive groups of prints also are recorded. Broken sets, incomplete portfolios, and lots with unrelated prints generally are omitted even if they are by the same artist, as this kind of price information tends to be misleading at best. Also for the same reason we have resisted listing prints offered with the drawing for the print or the print with the original woodblock and so forth.

We salute the auction houses featured in this book. Their co-operation facilitates the production of this volume, especially their constant and immediate response to our last minute requests for price lists or catalogues we may have inadvertently overlooked.

Artist

Entries are grouped alphabetically by the artist's surname. SETS, PORTFOLIOS, AND SOME SERIAL PUBLICATIONS THAT INCLUDE WORKS BY VARIOUS ARTISTS HAVE BEEN LISTED AS "PORTFOLIO". We also list: attributed, studio, workshop, manner, style, circle, school, follower, and after.

Title [also please see Artist/Title Conventions, following]

Each artist's work is in turn arranged alphabetically by title. If the first word of a title is an article such as "The", "A", or "An", the article has been dropped and the next word becomes the first word of the title (e.g., "A Boy reading" is listed as "Boy reading"). When necessary, titles are shortened to conform with space limitations.

Although the title is usually given in the language as it appears in the auction catalogues, in the case of the more prolific printmakers titles are given in the language of the main catalogue raisonné for that artist. If a catalogue is published in several languages including English, we will defer to English and change all recognizable prints to match the spelling and punctuation of the English catalogue raisonné. This insures that the same prints are listed together.

As examples, Picasso and Matisse titles are translated to French, Rembrandt and Durer to English. A curious thing happens with Chagall and Miro titles. Miro lithograph titles are translated into English and the etchings, aquatints, and woodcuts are in French. For Chagall the lithograph titles are translated into English, the etchings into German, and book illustrations for the Bible, Dead Souls, and Fables are into French.

Some artists always are more difficult to catalogue correctly than others. As a further example of our work in this area, and again what sets us apart from others who merely compile data, we give you Joan Miro. Not only were the publishers of his multi-volume lithograph catalogue good enough to bring them out in English, French, and Spanish thus making us contend with the three languages the numbering of the prints in the English edition varies from that in the French and Spanish versions, starting in the latter part of the first volume and continuing to the end of the third book. For us it means looking up each print in the English and in the Spanish editions so that you can find them listed in our book with an M reference for the English version or an MA reference for the French and Spanish catalogues. We always include well over 1,000 Miro entries. Finally, since auction houses do not always list catalogue raisonné numbers, we suggest you look up a print both by its title and by its catalogue raisonné number.

Artist/Title Conventions

This Annual since its inception has adhered to a rigid set of standards relating to the cataloguing of several artists prints, generally those found in sets, series, portfolios, and books. While the professional rarely has a problem finding a particular entry, sometimes the amateur does. This system is all the more important with the advent of the CD-ROM and the ability to list up to fifteen years of sales of a particular print in one seamless record. This is yet another reason to search for prints by catalogue raisonné number as well as title. The artists and the conventions are:

Chagall
Ames Mortes: [title]
Arabian Nights: [plate number title]
Bible: [title]
Daphnis and Chloe: [title]
LaFontaine Fables: [title]
Land of the Gods: [title]
Mein Leben: [plate number title]
Story of the Exodus: [title]
Durer
Bartsch Woodcuts: [BWC]
Bartsch Engravings: [BEN]
Goya
Caprichos: [plate number title]
Desastres de la Guerra: [plate number title]
Proverbios: [plate number title]
Tauromaquia: [plate number title]
Lorrain
Found under Claude Gellee
Miro
M: English;
MA: Spanish and French
Monogrammist
Found under Master
Picasso
Ceramic - [title]
Series 156: [plate number]
Series 347: [plate number]
Vollard Suite: [plate number title]
Piranesi
Carceri: [plate number title]
Vedute: [plate number title]

Descriptive Information

Additional information about a print or book or portfolio follows the title (plate numbers, sub-titles, the set in which the print originated, publishers, engravers, etc.).

Printings

Unless otherwise indicated, all prints are assumed to be from the first edition.

Late Printing: Indicates a printing within the artists lifetime, after the first edition.

Posthumous Printing (Restrike): Indicates an impression taken after the artists death. When the only edition is posthumous, the restrike annotation is not always given, although whenever possible date and edition information is entered after the title.

In the case of old master prints, the term is sometimes used to indicate an impression considerably removed in time from the artists life, as for example a 19th century impression of a plate by Rembrandt. In the case of modern artists, dates of late editions and other pertinent edition information is entered after the title in brackets, whenever available.

Abbreviations

Although terms are usually spelled out in full, some cases necessitate abbreviations. A list of those abbreviations most frequently used is found within this guide to the book.

Medium

While we regret reducing the richness of printmaking history to merely technically standard and accurate terms, in simplifying the variety of printmaking media a very small degree of compression has been necessary. For example, lithography must include algraphy, zincography, autography, agamographs, and polyautography. Hand coloring encompasses watercolor, acrylic, pencil, and gouache.

Date

Dates are given for the year of completion of the plate. When the date is uncertain a "c" or "ca" appears before the date. Subsequent editions are noted after the title.

Edition Size

Edition size refers to the particular edition from which the print comes. Editions numbered in Roman numerals are given in Roman numerals to distinguish them from the regular edition usually numbered in Arabic. Such abbreviations as "H.C." for hors commerce or "T.P." for trial proof are used throughout the book. Where no edition size is given, we have endeavored to fill in the edition size if we can determine it from the artist's catalogue raisonné.

For complete information about total edition sizes, sizes of variant editions, prints reserved from commerce or designated as proofs, always check standard reference books, many of which are listed in the bibliography at the end of this Annual.

Paper Type

The type of paper upon which the image was printed is given if found in the auction catalogue. Generally only the larger houses furnish this depth of data.

Impression Quality

The quality of the impression of the print is noted if given in the auction catalogue. Again, this information is not always provided by the auction houses, but when it is, we pass it along to you. The quality of the impression can be a major determinant in the value of a particular print.

Catalogue Raisonnè Reference

Whenever possible we have listed the catalogue raisonné number of the particular print if in fact a catalogue raisonné exists for that artist. If the artist has more than one catalogue we have tried to list the major catalogue(s). Up to 6 major catalogue raisonné references are cited per entry. Again, we have endeavored to fill in references for many major artists even when the auction houses did not cite them.

Auction catalogues do not always list these numbers and often list only one, which might be from an older, perhaps inferior catalogue raisonné. Time permitting we have ascertained and used the best source. If no information was available the field was left blank. Again, therefore, we suggest you look up a print both by its title and by its catalogue raisonné number.

A listing of catalogues raisonnés by artist appears at the end of the book.

State

As previously mentioned, the state of a print, if any, follows the catalogue raisonné number in Roman numerals (e.g., K24III).

Measurements

Measurements are recorded in millimeters and in inches whenever sales catalogues provide them. Dimensions record the image sizes, or in the case of intaglio prints, the boundaries of the platemark. With tondo (circular or oblong) prints, the diameter size in inches and millimeters is listed. Japanese print dimensions are often cited by the descriptive Japanese word, as follows:

JAPANESE PRINT SIZES

Name
Inches
Millimeters
Aiban
13 ¼ x 8 ¾
343 x 222
Chuban
10 ¼ x 7 ½
260 x 191
Dai Oban
15 ½ x 11 ¾
394 x 298
Hashire-e
27 ½ x 4 ¾
699 x 121
to
to
29 ½ x 6
749 x 152
Hosoban
13 x 5 ¾
330 x 146
Kakemono-e
29 ½ x 10
749 x 254
Kakuban
8 x 7
203 x 178
Koban
9 x 6 ¾
229 x 179
Nagaban
19 ¾ x 9
502 x 229
Oban Tate
15 x 10
381 x 254
Oban Yoko
10 x 15
254 x 381
Tanzaku
15 x 5
381 x 127
to
to
15 x 6 ¾
381 x 170
Uchiwa-e
9 x 10
229 x 254
Yatsugiri-ban
3 ¾ x 5
95 x 127
Tanzaku was used for either O.Tanzaku or Chu-Tanzaku. Each is a vertical print with Chu-Tanzaku smaller in length and O-Tanzaku greater in length. Tate is a vertical format; Yoko is a horizontal print; Uchiwa-e is a fan-shaped format; and Kakemono-e is often referred to as a pillar print.

Signatures/Marks/Notations

Signed or Initialized: Indicates the appearance of the artist's autograph signature , monogram, or initials on the sheet, in either pencil, pen, or brush. No mention is made of a signature made on the matrix (block, plate, or stone) and printed with each impression ("signed in the plate"). With reference to books or portfolios, signatures refer to the justification page or colophon; if the prints within are individually signed, mention is made (if space permits) within brackets following the title.

Stamped Signatures: May be placed either in the margin, within the print, or on the verso of the print; indicates either a full signature stamp or an initial stamp.

Estate Signature: Indicates the signature or stamp of, or approved by, the artists widow, widower, or heir.

Printers Signature: Refers to the signature of the printer or publisher; in the case of books it sometimes indicates the autograph signature of the author.

Numbered: Refers to the written numbers placed upon the print. They usually will have a numerator and a denominator. Numbering may be in the hand of the artist or someone designated by the artist.

Dated: Generally refers to the date inscribed by the artist. Dates inscribed outside the print image also may refer either to the date the plate was made or the date of printing.

Titled: Indicates the artist has titled the print in his hand, although occasionally it is titled by another.

Annotated: Covers sundry inscriptions by the artist such as edition size, state, remarks such as H.C. or E.A., or various notes and comments by the artist concerning the impression.

Dedicated: An inscription by the artist to a specific person.

Condition

The overall condition of a print, its margins, image, and verso are described if they are noted by the auction house.

Whenever the condition of the print has been referred to in the auction catalogue we have endeavored to describe this condition. Our condition reports are concerned with four areas of the print: margins, image, the verso, and the overall condition. Only defects in condition are referred to in our listings. Verbiage such as "otherwise in excellent condition" has been left out. Descriptions in auction catalogues such as "slightly attenuated colors" are described in our listing as "colors faded"; "a few small tears in the outer margins" becomes "tears in the margins"; "some foxing in the margins" becomes "margins foxed". Words like "small", "slightly", "a few", "some", etc. have been left out of our condition descriptions since one man's "slightly" may be another man's "badly". An auction house's "a few" may look like another viewer's "many". These words are judgment values and we are trying to re-describe condition facts.

The reader is directed to the auction house catalogues themselves to draw ones own conclusions in this delicate area.

Margins

For Modern Prints: The standards employed by auction houses vary widely, from those that do not mention margins at all to those terms such as Full Margins, Wide Margins, Small Margins, Trimmed Margins, Without Margins, or, the ambiguous and non-committal Margins. The reader must conclude for himself what the relative difference is between these terms.

In modern times the term Full Margins may be used for a print that is printed to the edges of the sheet and therefore has no margins, to a print that has huge or small margins whose margins are in the same condition as was the entire edition when it was originally printed.

For Old Master Prints the standards are more defined as follows:

Platemark: This indicates that the margins have been trimmed to the platemark that appears on an intaglio print.

Thread Margins: Indicates that the margins of an intaglio print have been trimmed away to somewhere between the inner and outer sides of the "filet" that exists between the outer side of the image and the outer side of the platemark.

Trimmed: This term is given if the margins have been trimmed, but not so drastically as to qualify for the thread margin category. The extent of trimming may be only fractional, and in some cases may be trimmed only on one side. The degree of trimming may sometimes be assessed by referring to the auction catalogues.

Without Margins: This means that the margins have been cut off all the way around to or on the borderline, or just outside the image.

Trimmed into the Image: One or more sides of the image of the print has been cut away.

Remargined: Prints that have new margins grafted on have been remargined. The original sheet may be trimmed to the platemark or within it. The term appears if even one of the margins is not original.

Many true connoisseurs feel the quality of the impression of the print and its overall condition are far more important than the margins. For a typical example of this, see the prints of J.A.M. Whistler, who himself cut away the margins on some of his prints.

In fact, as a conclusion to this dissertation on margins, please consider Whistler's Propositions, published with "A Set of Twenty-Six Etchings" in 1886:

IX. That the habit of margin, again, dates from the outsider, and continues with the collector in his unreasoning connoisseurship - taking curious pleasure in the quantity of paper.

X. That the picture ending where the frame begins, and, in the case of the etching, the white mount, being inevitably, because of its colour, the frame, the picture thus extends itself irrelevantly through the margin to the mount.

XI. That wit of this kind should leave six inches of raw canvas between the painting and its gold frame, to delight the purchaser with the quality of the cloth.

Price/Sale Information

Auction House: The name of the auction house appears in the entry. A list of auction houses used in the book's entries and a list of the sales included in the Print Price Annual appear on the following pages.

Auction Date: The month, day, and year of each sale are given in this order in Arabic numerals with slashes.

Lot Number: Lot numbers are preceded by the annotation "#" and are given in Arabic numerals. These are occasionally followed by the letters given by the auction house when more than one lot has the same number.

Price:

Sold Prints: Prices are given to the left of each entry in U.S. dollars, the Euro, and British pounds. IF THE AUCTION WAS HELD IN A CURRENCY OTHER THAN THESE THREE CURRENCIES, THAT SOLD PRICE IN THE CURRENCY OF THE HOME COUNTRY ALSO IS INCLUDED AT THE END OF THE ENTRY (e.g. 4375 DK). Prices for the Italian Lira are truncated by three zeros (please see the explanation, following, under "Italian Lira"). All sold prices include the buyer's premium as well as any VAT on the premium that is mandatory for every purchaser to pay. Therefore, stated sold prices are the minimum price every purchaser must pay for the lot. VAT on the purchase price or sales taxes are not included.

THE "CURRENCY OF SALE" PRICE IS BOLDED if that currency was either dollars, Euros, or pounds.

There is no price cut off in this 2001 edition. Thousands of lower priced prints, which the reader will find nowhere else, are listed.

Bought-in Prints: LOTS THAT FAILED TO SELL which are "bought-in" (often referred to as a "buy-in") also are stated in U.S. dollars, the Euro, and British pounds to the left of each entry, but ARE PLACED IN BOLDED (PARENTHESES) ( ). They are expressed by giving the auction house's low estimate, with the buyer's premium and any VAT on that premium added. IF THE "BUY IN" SALE IS IN A CURRENCY OTHER THAN U.S. DOLLARS, THE EURO, OR BRITISH POUNDS, THE LOW ESTIMATE IS GIVEN IN THE SALE CURRENCY AT THE END OF THE ENTRY, PRECEDED BY THE WORD "ESTIMATED" (e.g., ESTIMATED FF2275) [Parentheses then are also placed around the dollar, Euro, and pound figures].

Not Reported/No Results Published Prints: Sales results for auctions are sometimes not published or, despite our repeated requests, not provided to us prior to our publication deadline. These are reported by us in a manner identical to that for those "bought-in" except that the prices are placed in bolded [BRACKETS] [ ] not parentheses.

Withdrawn Prints: Occasionally a print is withdrawn from an auction after the catalogue is published but before the sale itself. Again, these print prices are expressed by giving the auction house's low estimate, with the buyer's premium and any VAT on that premium added, and are placed in bolded {BRACES} { } not parentheses (buy-in) or brackets [not reported].

Sold After Sale Prints: Sometimes an item will not sell at auction, but a sale will be negotiated afterwards, and the auction house will report these separately from the lots actually sold at the auction itself. These lots are placed in bolded <LESS THAN/GREATER THAN> < > not parentheses (buy-in) or brackets [not reported] or braces {withdrawn}.

Therefore all prices, whether to the left or at the end of each entry, represent either what the purchaser paid or what he would have had to pay for the lot if the print had been sold and the low estimate had been reached.

Pre-Sale Estimates: The auction houses pre-sale estimates, if given in the catalogue, are placed in bolded [BRACKETS] [ ] at the end of each entry, e.g., [1,000 2,000].

Italian Lira: For your convenience, in our currency exchange rate table for the Italian lira we have omitted the first three zeros to the right of the decimal point. As an example, in the 2001 Annual for the date 1/02/2000, the rate was listed as .53253, whereas the effective exchange rate to dollars was .00053253. This is necessary because in our entries the last three zeros of the Lira price are omitted if the print sells in Lire.

For instance, a price listed as "L7500" is actually 7,500,000 Lire. To get the correct price for that 1/02/2000 sale you would multiply L7500 by .53253 for a sale price of $3,994, the same as if you multiplied L7,500,000 by .00053253.

Rate of Exchange: The exchange rate used for currency conversions is based on published daily rates of exchange. If an auction took place on a weekend, the following day's rate of exchange is used.

We pay meticulous care to currencies, making sure that we give the right denominations for the auction houses and that our dollar equivalents are calculated with the conversion rates applicable to the dates of the auctions. Our 2000 currency conversion list for the major reporting currencies can be found on the following pages.

The following are the abbreviations for the currencies used in this book:

Australian dollar A$
Israeli shekel IS
Austrian schilling AS
Italian lira L
Belgian franc BF
Japanese yen Y
British pound £ (or) EL
Mexican peso MP
Canadian dollar C$
Netherlands guilder DG
Danish krone DK
Norwegian krone NK
Dutch guilder DG
South African rand R
Euro e
Spanish peseta SP
Finnish markka FM
Swedish krona SK
French franc FF
Swiss franc SF
German deutschmark DM
Taiwan dollar T$
Hong Kong dollar H$
U.S. Dollar $
Indian rupee IR
Venezuelan bolivar VB
Illustrated Lots

Prints that are illustrated in the auction catalogue are denoted by "(illus)" at the end of each entry.

Cross-Index Numbering of Prints

Following each entry to the far right is a bolded number in parentheses. This is our numbering of each entry. It is used to identify each print when looking up prints by artist and catalogue raisonné number in the second section of the book. This numbering starts with the first alphabetical listing as (1) and ascends by one digit for each following listing.

Cross-Reference Listing by Catalogue Raisonné Number

In addition to being able to look up a price by Artist/Title in the first section of Gordons, prints may be looked up by Artist/Catalogue Raisonné Number.

This section is arranged first alphabetically by the artists name and then lists the catalogue raisonné abbreviation and number of each print, in alphabetical order and ascending numerical order (a listing of the catalogue raisonné abbreviations used in this book is found in the section entitled Reference Abbreviations by Artist). When an artist is selected and the catalogue raisonné number of that particular print you are looking for is found, you will notice a number in the opposite column. This refers to the assigned number (in parentheses) at the end of each entry in the main section of the book. Using this index for major international artists simplifies the process of finding a particular print whose title may be given in several languages.

Catalogue Raisonné Reference Abbreviations by Artist

The abbreviations used to indicate a reference source are listed in the back of the book following the "Cross-Index Listing by Catalogue Raisonné" section. This brief reference to the author of the catalogue raisonné also serves as a guide to the bibliography. A capital "G" following the source designates a catalogue that is general in nature and can be found in the section entitled General Reference Works. Generally, the references in this book are those of catalogues raisonnés except reference numbers used for posters from Poster Auctions International auction catalogues. We have not checked or corrected these poster references. The most common poster references are as follows:

DFPI Das Fruhe Plakate I

DFPII Das Fruhe Plakate II

DFPIII Das Fruhe Plakate III

PAI-I to PAI-XXXI Poster Auctions International I-XXXI

M Musee dAffiche 1978

P Phillips Poster Auctions I-VII

For a more complete description of the many incomplete illustrated books on posters see the back matter in any Poster Auctions International auction catalogue.

Bibliography

The bibliography has two parts. The first lists "Monographs and Catalogues Raisonnés" on individual artists. It is arranged alphabetically by author. As the bibliography is cumulative it includes sources cited in previous volumes of Gordon's though these sources may not have been cited in this current book. Conversely, because the Reference Abbreviations have been extensively updated while the updating on the Bibliographies is still underway, the new information may not yet appear in the bibliographical sections.

The second part lists "General Reference Works" that deal with more than one artist, or surveys of the print scene. It is arranged by the author's name and cites such reference works as Bartsch, Hollstein, Rauch, and Gemini G.E.L.

For Help or Further Information

We hope you find this book as useful as we have intended it to be. For assistance or further information, feel free to call our offices at (1) 602-253-6948, or send us email at office@gordonsart.com. Our Internet site at www.gordonsart.com is newly designed and brimming with updated information, including how to access our databases on-line. Our order line is (1) 602-253-6948. We would be happy to spend as much time as you need to help you use this book, our Website, or any of our other art reference books and CD-ROMs as efficiently as possible.

Marty Gordon (1939-1995), et al

New York, New York

Naples, Florida

Phoenix, Arizona